At the following downbeat the orchestra commences to play, provided the conductor survives. Day--upbeat As a professional musician, I find the musical definition inadequate. Yes, it means an offbeat rather than the downbeat. But, it also means up tempo. Dictionaries claiming that there is only one downbeat in a measure are inept. Most of the Celtic music I play has 2, 3, or 4 downbeats per measure. As a professional musician and music professor I have never heard that called an upbeat.
Your example is typically referred to as a pickup. As much as 60 percent of native Mandarin speakers who start studying music at a young age develop perfect pitch. An interesting thing the author did while researching this was to record Mandarin speakers saying certain words, then rerecording those same speakers saying the same words a year later.
When she played them back, the words were spoken at the exact pitch they were spoken the previous year. Each orchestra and ensemble had its own. Some had Hertz, some had higher, and some a lot lower.
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And it changed from era to era. Making train schedules for cross-country trains in the US, for example, must have been hellish. Effect of an isotonic rehydration sports drink and exercise on urolithiasis in rats N. Abreu 1 , C.
Bergamaschi 2 , G. Razvickas 1 , and N. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the role of physical exercise as well as the influence of hydration with an isotonic sports drink on renal function in male Wistar rats. The isotonic sports drink was a commercial solution used by athletes for rehydration after physical activity, 2 ml administered by gavage twice a day.
Urine cultures were performed in all animals. Twenty-four-hour urine samples were collected in metabolic cages at the beginning and at the end of the protocol period. Urinary and plasma parameters sodium, potassium, urea, creatinine, calcium did not differ among groups. Characterization of the material by Western blot revealed the presence of Tamm-Horsfall protein and angiotensin converting enzyme.
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Physical exercise and the isotonic drink did not change the plasma or urinary parameters measured. However, the isotonic drink induced the formation of intravesical matrix, suggesting a potential lithogenic risk. Sports drinks have been developed primarily for use during or after exercise, and in general contain carbohydrate and low concentrations of electrolytes, usually sodium and potassium 1. Preservation of hydration remains the most important goal during exercise, and in sports of less than 60 min of continuous duration, plain water is probably the most economical and practical beverage.
However, athletes and even sedentary individuals frequently use sports drinks during exercise due to their pleasant taste 1.
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Patients with a high incidence of renal stone formation are strongly advised to maintain hydration. This advice should be even stronger if patients practice physical activity 2. Urolithiasis is a sequence of complex physical processes that involve saturation, supersaturation, nucleation, aggregation, and stones formation 3. It can originate mainly from low urinary volumes, hypercalciuria, hyperuricosuria, hyperoxaluria, hypocitraturia, and hypomagnesiuria, and also from urinary infection 4. In addition, acute renal colic can be induced by exercises, dehydration and reduction of urinary volume.
Other factors such as increased protein ingestion and administration of some medicines have also been reported 5.
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An increase in the concentration of large diameter particles has been observed in the urine of marathon athletes, possibly increasing crystalluria and the risk of nephrolithiasis 6. A controversial question, however, is what can reduce urolithiasis induced by physical exercise.
Two major views have been recently proposed. The first is that the risk of urolithiasis can be reduced by increased liquid intake 7,8. The second is that the amount of electrolytes and glucose added to drinking water leads to a more complete rehydration than the ingestion of just water. The objective of the present study was to determine if the use of a commercial sports drink associated or not with exercise represents a potential risk for renal stones or possible inducive factors.
Material and Methods. This level corresponds to moderate intensity 9, As described by the manufacturer, the content of ml of this solution is: 24 kcal energy, 6.
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Biochemical parameters For urine collection, rats were placed in metabolic cages for 24 h at the beginning and at the end of the day period of the protocol. Urinary parameters analyzed were sodium, potassium, calcium, urea, creatinine, oxalate, citrate, and total urinary volume.
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Plasma was collected only at the end of the protocol period for the determination of sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, urea, and creatinine. To be certain that urine was not contaminated with bacteria, urine samples were collected from all animals under aseptic conditions and cultured. The sodium and potassium excretion rate was also calculated. The final samples were collected at least 24 h after the last exercise session.
The animals were then sacrificed with an overdose of anesthesia. Histology At the end of the study period, the kidneys of all animals were removed and fragments were stained with hematoxylin and eosin for morphological evaluation. The bladders were opened for examination and any content was removed for evaluation. The washing step was repeated between incubations. Urine values are presented as pre- and post-treatment, while the plasma parameters were determined only at the end of the experimental protocol. Exercise or sports drink, or both, did not produce any change in the plasma parameters Table 1.
There were no significant variations in the values of urinary potassium, urea, creatinine, oxalate, citrate, or calcium obtained before and after treatment in any group Table 1. Urinary sodium excretion decreased after treatment in the Drink group from 1. However, the value obtained after treatment did not differ from other groups.
Fractional sodium and potassium excretion did not differ between groups or before and after treatment. A gelatinous amorphous protein matrix was found in the bladder of 5 of 12 animals There was no evidence of infectious or inflammatory processes or of the presence of fungus. No crystalloid material was detected. Log in No account? Create an account. Remember me. Facebook Twitter Google. Tags: author: jade buchanan , genre: paranormal , length: novella , review , theme: menage , theme: shapeshifters.
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